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Genographic Project DNA Results Reveal Details of Puerto Rican History

Let’s go back 520 years ago to the year 1494 on the island of Vieques, off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico’s mainland.

Tainos, the largest indigenous Caribbean population, were living a life based on the cultivation of root crops and fishing when upon the shores arrived Columbus and his fleet, having crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the second time in as many years. At that point in time everything changed.

What’s written on paper has told us much about what happened next. What’s written in the DNA of today’s Puerto Ricans can tell us some more.

Credit: B. Anthony Stewart/National Geographic Creative
(Photo by B. Anthony Stewart/National Geographic Creative)

National Geographic’s Genographic Project researches locations where different groups historically intermixed to create a modern day melting pot. Collaborating with 326 individuals from southeastern Puerto Rico and Vieques, the Genographic Project conducted the first genetic testing in the area with the goal to gain more information about their ancient past and learn how their DNA fits into the human family tree. The results, just published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, paint a picture of vast historic complexity dating back some 5,000 years, to the first Caribbean peoples.

Our Genographic team learned some key pieces of information that helped us gain more insight into the peopling of the Caribbean. Most surprisingly, we found that roughly 60% of Puerto Ricans carry maternal lineages of Native American origin. Native American ancestry, higher than nearly any other Caribbean island, originated from groups migrating to Puerto Rico from both South and Central America. Analysis of the Y Chromosome DNA found that no Puerto Rican men (0%) carried indigenous paternal lineages, while more than 80% were West Eurasian (or European).

This leads us to conclude that the Y chromosomes (inherited strictly paternally) of Tainos were completely lost in Puerto Rico, whereas the mitochondrial DNA (inherited strictly maternally) survived long and well. This stark difference has been seen in other former colonies (Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica), but the gender dichotomy appears strongest in the Spanish-speaking Americas. A look into the rest of the Puerto Rican genome using the Genographic Project’s custom genotyping tool, the GenoChip, sheds some light on what may have happened during Spanish colonial times to create this ancestral imbalance.

The average Puerto Rican individual carries 12% Native American, 65% West Eurasian (Mediterranean, Northern European and/or Middle Eastern) and 20% Sub-Saharan African DNA. To help explain these frequencies in light of the maternal and paternal differences, I used basic math and inferred that it would take at least three distinct migrations of hundreds of European men each (and practically no European women) to Puerto Rico, followed by intermixing with indigenous women. It also would necessitate the complete decimation of indigenous men (but not women), to account for those numbers. These results are surprising and also shed light into a dark colonial past that, until now, had remained somewhat unclear.

Migration Map
(Map courtesy The Genographic Project)

These types of analyses, not just across the Caribbean or the world, but across a specific population’s DNA, can have strong historical implications and at the same time help paint a new picture of world history. Learn more about how DNA can inform you about your own personal past, and help us uncover some new secrets of world history by joining The Genographic Project.

Comments

  1. Dr. Carlalynne Melendez
    Naguake Community - Boriken
    October 6, 7:34 pm

    Places such as Guavate, Guayabota, Matuyas, Jacana, Jagual, Emajagua, and Cayaguas are located in the southeast region. These places form part of the Sierra of Cayey, which was a refuge for our Taino ancestors escaping the colonization taking place at the time in the Turabo Valley, the coastal valleys of the Guayanes, Maunabo and Humacao Rivers; and the south coastal plains in Guayama and Salinas. When we think of Taino survival in the 16th century we automatically think :”Indieras” and that is not entirely true. The Guavate region was also populated by the descendants of the Tainos…during and after the colonization period. The Guavate and southeast region has a strong indigenous mtDNA genetic presence.

  2. Elizabeth Olivencia Maldonado
    San Gabriel California
    October 4, 9:25 pm

    This is all so interesting. I would like to no more on this. I was told that my Grandfather from my mother’s size was Taino, I think my grandmother from my father’s size was Italian and the other one from Spain. I don’t no where my other grandfather was from. Send me some info as how to find out

  3. Digna Marrero
    From New York, but presently in VA
    October 2, 11:14 am

    Both my parents are from Puerto Rico. I have been doing some research on my family tree, and have found it very challenging to find information. I would be so excited to be part of this process. Please contact me and let me know what I need to do to be part of this project.

  4. August Anthony Croe
    Aruba
    September 30, 3:39 pm

    It should be taken in consideration that the Mt- DNA can only be transmitted by females and all males carry the Mt-DNA of their mothers, while fathers are responsible for the Y chromosome which can also be trace for its origin. How ever this study in particular is focused up on the native American Mt-DNA and their corresponding Haplo groups or the particular code of their genetic migrating Eve`s of PR. This means that if you had a Spanish, African, Anglo or a Taino father, it does not alter the Mt-DNA of your Taino mother and there for you would be consider a Taino in this particular study no mater your physical appearance or the origin of your father, grandfather and so forth. So in principle, if your mother was a Taino and your father a Carib your Mt-DNA will be from a Taino.

  5. Herman J Cestero
    San Juan, Puerto Rico
    September 30, 7:32 am

    Something is awfully wrong in here. Even the smallness of the sample, that I consider insufficient to give a statistically significant result, justifies a 60% female prevalence and 0% male prevalence. It is estimated that the island was inhabited by some 50,000 Tainos at the time of discovery. But due to slavery (many died as slaves), disease (worst decimator) and slaughter (after the rebellion Ponce de Leon had 6,000 of them killed), by 1515 (7 years after first settlement in Caparra), the Taino population had been reduced to mere 4,000 and by the end of the XVI th. century they were reduced to a couple of dozens Tainos on the island. Even supposing that those 4,000 Tainos in 1515 were all Guaninas (Taino Eve’s) and 0 Agueybanas (Taino Adam’s) and that all (100.00%) of the population in Puerto Rico ((about 150,000) at the beginning of the XIX th. Century were Taino women descendants from those 4,000 Guaninas, by 1832 the population had grown to 355,000 (more than doubled) thanks to de Cedula de Gracia, and by the end of the XIX century it was nearly one million, all of them European stock families and African slaves. Let’s forget that Puerto Rico population had gone up to 150,000 in 1800 from less than 50,000 in 1765 when there were no Guaninas around. The 1800 to 1832 population doubling should have had a dilutional factor of 50%, (10% less than current mtDNA seems to reflect) that is supposing that all 150,000 in 1800 were Taino women descendants and that not a single woman has entered Puerto Rico since 1832. We know that the first settlement in Caparra had women including Ponce de Leon’s wife, and even with a predominance of male migrations to the island, we know that thousands of women came from all of Europe and Africa to the island before 1800. Even if we postulate a male contribution of mitochondrial material (defying common knowledge) something is very, very wrong. Instinctively I think that the base, Taino reference material is wrong or contaminated. Otherwise we have to postulate faulty analytical equipment or an absurd constant infusion of Taino female mtDNA by a bacteria or virus that has preserved the material for 500 years. WRONG, WRONG – no way to explain it. Maternal mtDNA as well as paternal Y chromosome DNA have a lineal flow without affluents other than mutations, and then mutations are mutations where specific lineages begin. It is more like water running in a pipe that a water sample all the way to the aqueduct is the same as at the spigot, not like a river where new water keeps entering the stream.

  6. Eric
    OZ
    September 30, 2:12 am

    Tragic history that confirms the aggression of the western Europeans and the genocide that they are capable of. Still continues today – the war on ‘the other’ and extra judicial killing on a large scale never stops does it?

  7. J. Oluwole
    New York
    September 30, 1:48 am

    It was quite interesting to read the comments,questions ,criticisms and objections in this forum about the admixture of Puerto Ricans.
    I really don’t understand why there seems to be some ignorance on the part of knowing African history.Africa is a continent not a country like Spain. Read and know the history of the African people. It is more rich and diverse than Spain’s.
    Be proud of your African ancestry.

  8. Nancy Carter
    Eloy, Arizona
    September 29, 7:04 pm

    I am already part of the genographic project and I agree with your new findings. The Spaniards landed and mated with the women and killed off the men to ensure they wouldn’t be attacked. these Spaniards had African slaves on board who escaped and also mated with the taino women. after them came many other seafarers who did the same. The Puerto Rican people are quite a mixture of races.

  9. Octavio Perez Ruiz de Porras (Toby)
    Kennesaw, Georgia, USA
    September 29, 3:12 pm

    “I am a blend of many, mix of an unadulterated sacred creation, I am Puertorriqueῆo” – Octavio Perez Ruiz de Porras

  10. Terry
    September 29, 2:45 pm

    In part and in common sense terms, your results reflect the idea that it is hard to resist falling in love with a “cinnmon girl” (Neil Young song)!

  11. Miguel G Vilar
    United States
    September 29, 1:19 pm

    For those who would like more information about the original AJPA academic article, please follow this link:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22569/abstract

    Thank you for your interest, Dr. Miguel Vilar

  12. Christina
    United States
    September 27, 8:50 pm

    May you please clarify in which issue specifically were the results of this study published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology? I cannot locate it in any issue from 2014. Thanks.

  13. Sally Llull Billings
    Las Vegas, Nv, USA
    September 25, 6:27 pm

    My maternal ancestry is of Puerto Rican origin and the Genographic results indicate that my mtDNA traces back to West Africa even though physically I am white. I was always curious about what could have happened and guessed that a Spanish ancestor mated with an African woman. This article seems to confirm what I have thought all along. I’d like to do more research and have my DNA tested for other potential haplogroups to get a better picture of my past.

  14. Luis E. Pacheco
    Ceiba, PR
    September 11, 12:32 am

    I had some initial DNA work done by Ancestry.com, and while the percentages vary somewhat from the National Geographic findings, the relative contribution of European, African and Native American is consistent. My wife and I have been volunteering with an archeological dig in the area of ‘Las Cabezas de San Juan’, in Fajardo. The dig itself is a rescue operation, trying to retrieve and study the remnants of a pre-Taino settlement attributable to the Igneri tribe estimated to have been present about 1,600 years ago. Some of the pottery shards recovered suggests some cultural contribution from Central America, while other remnants suggest a South American contribution.

  15. Rich V
    Austin, TX
    August 16, 12:26 pm

    I’m not sure this is the “first” study of it’s kind, unless it’s being very specific.

    http://www.udel.edu/LASP/Vol1-2MartinezC.html

  16. Josef Deida
    Miami, Florida
    August 15, 12:49 pm

    I never get tired of showing my DNA results to my students. I’d just like to know how my DNA markers got from Europe, especially Greece, to the Caribbean.

  17. Luis A Salgado Lopez
    United States
    August 14, 12:28 pm

    Please if you need my blood for further study you are welcome to use it, you did a great research. the puertorican race was developed after 500 years of mixed genes wich developed a beautiful race.

  18. Anidia Montes
    Orlando, Fl
    August 13, 10:12 pm

    Thank you for the very interesting research and information. I am absolutely intrigued. I’d not be opposed to being part of your ongoing research. Please point me in the right direction!

    Kind Regards,
    Anidia Montes- born in Santa Isabel

  19. A. N. Rojas Borges
    Miami, Florida EE.UU.
    August 13, 8:07 pm

    Soy hijo de cubanos. Mi abuelo maternal era lampiño. Quiero saber cual es mi % de cubano nativo.

  20. Serrano
    Caguas, PR
    August 13, 12:55 am

    To: Gia Podobinski from San Juan
    I like how you did not include AFRICAN on your list of DNA… So please include it next time and then you can say that your proud! ” y tu abuela donde esta” ;)

  21. avida rosa
    FL,
    August 11, 11:58 pm

    I would like to be part of this project. My sister resemble taina, my brother and I look middle eastern and my other sister looks European. And we are all from same dad. Definitely would love to know our dna. Both of our parents were born in Puerto Rico.

  22. Tita Torres de Llompart
    August 11, 1:14 am

    This is a very interesting project! As a puertorican, I had lots of questions about my heritage. Having great grandparents from Corsica and Spain, I have always questions from where I come from. Looking at my relatives some medium-dark skin complexion, other very light with blue eyes. So, I did buy the kit for $199, my husband as well, he is from PR also. We got our results back. For my results my first reference group is Greek then Puerto Rican!! For my husband, who’s Puerto Rican also, came 1st reference group German then Italian.
    Personally I found this study very fascinating and very accurate even some people do no trust the results!!
    Gente boricua, la poblacion puertoriquena en general es una mezcla de Europeo- Mediterraneo, Indio-Taino y Negro!! Aceptenlo. Los que llegaron con C. Colon, llegaron y se limpiaron a todos los tainos y se quedaron con sus mujeres. Luego trajeron a los negros de esclavos y estos se mezclaron tambien con la poblacion! Somos una de las mezclas raciales mas interesantes que existe!!

  23. Charles
    United States
    August 10, 12:21 pm

    What hasn’t been discussed here is the impact that the Canarian population has had, not only on the Eurasian component of the Puert Ricans, but also on the African component as well. My grandma is of Canarian descent and clusters with Berbers and Egyptians. She has around 20% African DNA. Most Berbers have anywhere from 5% to 40% African DNA. The Canarians were an important source of colonials into the Americas. Specially to Cuba, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. More or less in that order. The Spanish (the peninsulares as the Canarians call them) figured that the Canarians were more adapted to the tropics, so would do better in those areas. Many of these women that have African mitochondria are in fact of Berber descent. That is because the transatlantic slave trade favored men over women 2 to 1 to work in the fields. Also, Puerto Rico underwent a deep depression between around 1620 and the mid 18th century or so, so African slaves were mainly imported into Cuba and other parts of the Caribbean and of course mainly to Brazil. You cannot by any means do a genetic study isolated from the historical and cultural context of the Island and draw conclusions based on that. Also, Puerto Rico was traditionally segregated and regionalized. The Canarians went mainly to the mountain areas to grow coffee and tobacco (as my family did as far back as the 1700’s). The elite sons of peninsulares settled mainly on the west coast, the Native American (the few males that survived), settled mainly in the area of the south west. And the Africans settled mainly in the coastal and particularly the north eastern coastal area. Again, without understanding these elements, you will take all this genetic mumbo jumbo out of context. Here are some blogs in regard to these matters:

    http://forwhattheywereweare.blogspot.com/2013/06/caribbean-autosomal-ancestry.html#comment-form

    http://geneacanaria.blogspot.com.es/2013/12/desde-la-lejania-una-aventura-del.html

  24. Aaron Carapella
    Stigler,OK
    August 10, 10:06 am

    326 people from Southeast Puerto Rico?? You mean where most of the white people settled? Try sampling people in the central mountains of PR, near Villalba and even the western section, and you will find people who are predominantly Taino everywhere. This is not a balanced sampling, but rather a focus on an area where mostly white people settled. Also, you see literally no black people going west on the island.

  25. Carlos M. Fraticelli Diaz
    Orlando, FL.
    August 7, 3:47 pm

    My grandfather on my father side came from a French island of the cost of Genoa, Italy that was a possession of the state city of Genoa with is now parte of Italy, but it was ceded to France in 1769 they speak French and aslo a Italian dialect. My grandfather from my mother side his family came from Canary Island (Spain ) but the people from Canary Island are considerd in Spain as ( Morros which were Arabs blood… and Jews(also knowed as cochinos) with Jews blood ) all Spaniard last names that finish with the letters ” Z ” were either Arab and or Jew blood that had change there original last names and would sound more Spanish and or Christians , because in the Spanish Inquisition if they won’t renounce their religion and change their names they were to be put in the stack and burned . So I guess that not all Puertorricans are from spainsh blood as the historians want you to belive !!!!……………..

  26. Dr. Miguel Vilar
    Washington, DC
    August 7, 3:35 pm

    Thank you for your comments and the constructive discussion. For anyone who is interested in participating in the project, please follow the link at the end of the blog by clicking on the words “The Genographic Project.”

    To answer some of your questions, the analysis included only 326 individuals, yet the results were consistent with what other (larger and smaller) studies had found. That said, the more participants we have, the more confident we can be about what we can say about a population.

    For comparison, a recent study in Cuba found that “the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs (Ancestry informative markers) were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively.” Those numbers are somewhat different to what we found in Puerto Rico. However, they found two Cuban men who carried Native American paternal lineages in a study that looked at 384 male samples. These results are fascinating, and very relevant to our understanding of Caribbean history.

    So, please continue to comment, and join the project helping us better understand Puerto Rican and Caribbean history. Who knows, you may also carry a lineage that has never been seen before?

    Thank you and best wishes,
    Dr. Miguel Vilar

  27. Domingo Hernandez
    New York
    August 7, 11:25 am

    In my opinion this study was worth while. Yes the basic school teachings in Puerto Rico was that we for the most part are a tri-racial people. Yet for the past 20 years the top inteligencia was writing the Taino contribution completely out of the picture. Any claim of Taino ancestry was dismissed as fantasy. Now we have scientific data. Taino quantum goes from 5% to the average of 15% and tops at a minority who have 39% . Another surprise is that among the average Puerto Rican the Subsaharan African quantum passes the Taino by only 5 point which is a very small number, meaning that in general terms we tend to have as much Native American ancestry as African. Also many readers seem not to know that this is not the only study done. Martinez Cruzado did an island wide study and the result tend to be the same. The studies do show a small totally European population and a totally African descended population of 5% each. Other studies point at a mestizo population an a biracial population of about 10% each. l

  28. A.Torres
    California
    August 6, 11:59 pm

    For you nay Sayer’s and doubting Thomas’, do a little research on basic statistics and things like standard deviation.

  29. Daniel C Lawson
    Red Deer County, Alberta, Canada
    August 6, 6:20 pm

    Please send me an address to send the cost for the genograph testing kit. Also the address to send it to and any other necessary information. Thanks, Daniel.

  30. Lester
    Los Angeles, CA
    August 4, 3:25 pm

    Interesting but I don’t know why the results are so surprising. They are consistent with the historical record. It is well known that Puerto Rico was colonized by Spanish men who did not bring their wives and mixed with the native women. The Taino population was decimated by disease and overwork and their DNA survived only through the women.

  31. Lester
    Los Angeles, CA
    August 4, 3:24 pm

    Interesting but I don’t know why the results are so surprising. They are consistent with the historical record. It is well known that Puerto Rico was colonized by Spanish men who did not bring their wives and mixed with the native women. The Taino population was decimated by disease and overwork and their DNA survived only trough the women.

  32. Carl Sledge
    Middle Georgia, USA
    August 4, 10:52 am

    I think with more time and testing, the project will find there was an Atlantic crossing by Europeans from what is now called France (flint flaking tools and few artifacts have been found on an island near Augusta, Georgia, in the Savannah River, that carbon date around 20,000 years old) this matches with the cave dwellers living in France of the same period and might be where the neanderthal DNA that shows up in eastern native Americans comes from, they had no immunity to smallpox which killed off 95% to 100% of many eastern tribes when 1400’s European invasion began

  33. evelisa Vélez Cardona
    San Juan, Puerto Rico
    August 4, 9:30 am

    My family since great-grandfathers live in San Sebastian, PR. I have pictures and my family told me they all came from Spain. I will like to participate regarding this data. Thanks.

  34. evelisa Vélez Cardona
    San Juan, puerto Rico 00918
    August 4, 9:23 am

    We are since Great Grand father from San Sebastian,.The information I’ve receive is that owr background is Spanish. I will like to participate in a study to obtained additional information.

  35. Tamara A Rivera
    New York
    August 2, 6:10 pm

    Interesting investigation. Sadly it provides evidence of the abuse
    the spaniards commited against our ancestors.

  36. Steven Roberts
    Portland, OR
    August 2, 11:04 am

    You should check for the Phoenician Y chromosome in Polynesians. I’ve always thought it was a fascinating theory that the two greatest navigating cultures could be related, and that would settle it one way or the other.

  37. Jeff Crew
    Tallahassee, FL
    August 1, 6:58 pm

    I would like to participate. Please send me signup info. Thank you.

  38. Jeff Crew
    Tallahassee, FL
    August 1, 6:57 pm

    I would like to participate. Please send me what I need. Thank you.

  39. Mariano Núñez
    Chicago
    August 1, 9:38 am

    The same sizw is .00905% of the population. Is that enough to make the call about the average person. Also, the region of the island, would it show a difference is one were to test areas in the center and west? Does the metropolitan area have a different make up since it has always been the area of Puerto Rico that has had more contact with the restofthe world? Interesting reseach nonetheless.

  40. Laurence Daley
    United States
    July 31, 3:22 pm

    In Cuba I knew a number of people in the montains of old Oriente Province with neo-Taino phenotypes, It seems that there, perhaps in Baracoa, there still exists males with neo-Taino Y chromosome

  41. Gloria E. Rodriguez De Aviles
    Griffin, Georgia
    July 30, 7:02 pm

    Exellent work, very informative, keep up the good work

  42. Ishlah Ali
    Charlotte
    July 30, 4:14 pm

    This just demonstrates what was learned by the Vikings. Kill off the men, take the women for themselves. Instead of raiding and leaving, you colonize by rape. Vikings loved RAPE!!!!

  43. Gia Podobinski
    San Juan
    July 30, 12:47 pm

    I’m appalled at the absentmindedness some people have shown with their comments, and that’s not to mention that some of them can’t even write correctly. People, the study that National Geographic has conducted pretty much resembles UPR’s own study. What’s “written” in our DNA counts more than what our “abuelitos” and “maestras” taught us. Thanks to modern technology, it is now that we can truly find out what blood runs through our veins and whether you like it or not, European DNA takes the lead in Puerto Rican ancestry. These studies don’t lie. They are scientific studies and not political garbage like the one many of our grandparents and teachers taught us while growing up. Be proud of who you are and tell your kids the truth about their ancestry. I am proud to be a Puerto Rican of Spanish/Polish/Italian/French/Jewish & Middle Eastern descent and I don’t see the need as to why I should get offended or embarrassed. It is what it is. You can change the history written in a text book but you can never change the history written in your DNA. Live with it!!

  44. Brenda Reyes
    Puert Rico
    July 30, 8:02 am

    I would like info on how I can submit my DNA

  45. nesly
    France
    July 30, 12:43 am

    I don’t care what happened to my “grand-grand-… parents (in french) : what I see, it’s wars, hate : – No best way of loving and those kind of ‘experiment’ give nothing more for people on the Earth ay this time ! … only give a job for some ! ;)

  46. Alexander Lobaina
    July 30, 12:28 am

    Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Substantial Native American Ancestry in Puerto Rico
    J. C. Martinez-Cruzado, G Toro-Labrador, V Ho-Fung, M Estevez-Montero, A Lobaina-Manzanet, D. A. Padovani-Claudio, H Sanchez-Cruz, P Ortiz-Bermudez, A Sanchez-Crespo
    From: Human Biology, Volume 73, Number 4, August 2001, pp. 491-511

  47. Verónica L. Cruz Pérez
    Bo. Antón Ruíz, Humacao
    July 29, 4:14 pm

    Ell estudio tá bello. Nunca recibbí mi resultado de ADN taíno Las muestas fueroon en el Municipio de Hummacao. Una doctora dirigente de una entidad Guakkia Ke se llevo mi ADN y nunnca entrego los resultados. Me siento triste y molesta…..A mi vecina Annie le dieron un diploma sin sello de laboratorio y sin firmma de genetistaa. Yo amo National Geographic y tanks por ese artículo, pero quiero mi resultado Adn.

  48. Laurence Daley
    United States
    July 29, 3:01 pm

    Laurence Daley [Garcia-I~niguez Enamorado] please do not omit the Indigenous mitochondrial sequences of Eastern Cuba.

    I write in the memoirs of my family In: “Love and War in Cuba” (in advanced preparation): My mother’s (Leonela García-Iñiguez Ramírez, 1910-2007 ) mitochondrial DNA (see Figure XXX Maternal mitochondrial haplo-group) and thus that of relatives, siblings, and myself was/is haplogroup Haplogroup A2d1 Family tree DNA Sample number 12182), A2d. Genograph extends this to A2d1. My mother’s mother was Rafaela Ramirez Enamorado, who was daughter of Manuela Enamorado Cabrera (1854-1948 ), and presumable granddaughter of Mariana Cabrera of the Cabrera band of the Sierra Maestra, Cuba. This mitochondrial DNA is “Native American. ”

    Please advise if more information is of use to project…

    Laurence Daley
    Professor Emeritus

  49. Maria Hernandez
    Hamilton, New Jersey
    July 29, 1:22 pm

    Fascinating! Will definitely submit my swab!

  50. Sandra Diaz
    Puerto Rico
    July 29, 11:38 am

    Puerto Rico was a province of Spain in 1898, we were part of Spain, that is why the similarity between Canary Islands and Puerto Rico ae remarkable. My great grandfather and great grandmother came from Canary Islands. My dna probably has some of the guanche (canary aboriginal inhabitants) or north west african ( some islands of the Canary Islands have over 20% of north west african ancestry). We puertoricans are as spaniards as those living in the Canary islands. The US invasion in 1898 did not change our DNA, we are still spaniards.

  51. Greg Mark
    July 29, 10:29 am

    Well, at least it’s heartening that the education system in PR is strong enough that a high school senior has the chutzpah to lecture NG on how to conduct science. Depressing that he’s so wrong, but still. Because, you know, self-esteem!

  52. Gloria Cuevas
    Florida
    July 29, 12:57 am

    I have read the comments and I am very interested in participating in this study. What information do you need from me? My maternal grandmother was Carmen Reyes Flores. I believe she was born in Ponce, PR around end of 1800 or turn of the century.

  53. Dr. Yolanda Salvá Vargas
    Utuado, Puerto Rico
    July 28, 11:01 pm

    I worked as biology and genetics professor at UPR-Utuado. I participated in this proyect as an individual not as part of the group they selected to study because I was very curious of my genetic background. I am from Caguana, Utuado, Puerto Rico. My father always was telling me that the indians lived in caves around Caguana and Angeles. His grand-grandmother was an adopted little indian girl. In the other hand, the Salvá family came from the Canary Islands or Spain. From the side of my mother I’m not very sure, but probably they had african origin.
    This is my mtDNA genetic background. What really impact me was my Neanderthal and Denisovan background!!!
    •34% Mediterranean
    •21% Northern European
    •16% Native American
    •13% Sub Saharan African
    •13% Southwest Asian
    2.7% Neanderthal
    2.0% Denisovan
    I am not worried about the results, they are really very interesting. What is really important is what I have achieved, my feelings, my family and my contribution to the society.

  54. Alty Agostini
    Las Vegas, NV
    July 28, 9:36 pm

    Like Madeline of Canovanas, I too, am curious regarding the picture shown in this article. I also own a print of that painting signed by the artist himself, Cajigas. So I guess Mr. Stewart just took a photo of the painting and put his own name on it. Shame.
    As regards heritage, I was born and raised in PR by a father of Italian roots and a mother of Spaniard roots, both going back many generations. I’m happy with that. To those of you wanting to know more, good luck with your search, but please, whatever you do, don’t make it about politics.

  55. Vizuil
    Florida
    July 28, 9:27 pm

    Apparently people love to regurgitate well known information and then add their own scientific analysis in a attempt to appear intelligent.. As you observe the many faces that comprise Puerto Rico it’s easy to see the main influences are that of Spaniards and Europeans…The Taino prescience is also very visible and the African existence is minimal at most but also very real….DNA is not needed to clearly see the obvious intermingling and down right lustful addictions that took place between those who stole and those who tried to defend what was rightfully theirs….The Spanish influence is by far the heaviest and it’s no surprise that’s why Puerto Rico is a Spanish speaking island and so many Puerto Ricans are white…All in all Puerto Rico has a diverse heritage but instead of worrying about DNA we really need to focus on the drug addiction and violence that is destroying such a beautiful people… We all share the same blood if you really care to go back to the beginning of creation instead of just focusing on the last few hundred years…. It’s one love one blood!

  56. Miriam Soto
    San Juan, P.R.
    July 28, 8:43 pm

    Want to subscribe too have my DNA tested. I have researched my family four generations back on my fathers side in Sabana Grande.Aquired pictures of my great grandparents and they look European. On my mothers side I was able to go back to my grandparents from Cayey, and they, also look European. When people meet me they think I am American from the states.

  57. Miguel A. Sanchez
    Orlando, Florida
    July 28, 7:13 pm

    Don’t claim to have extensive knowledge of DNA studies. But, I did stay at a Holiday Inn. All kidding aside, your result of 0% indigenous paternal lineage is online with something I learned in college. 2/3 of island natives (mostly males) were literally worked to death before the first slaves set foot on the island. It was a Holocaust and the reason why Europeans began to ship slaves from Africa. Otherwise, they would have never spent the time and money to transport labor over 4,000 miles. By the way, Roberto Clemente (RIP) and my God Father (RIP) were the first that instilled in me a sense of where I came from. However, I didn’t know anything about my Heritage, or what happened 500+ years ago, until I made my way into a university lecture hall and a Puerto Rican Professor from Oxford opened my eyes. So, I applaud any organization or individuals out there that share the history. In reading your articulate report, I can see that we’ve only scratched the surface. I’m also curious about my DNA and “The Genographic Project.” Please count me in and thanks again for your contribution to the Puerto Rican experience.

  58. Carlos
    Brussels
    July 28, 5:51 pm

    Algunos comentarios aquí muestran que hay muchos malentendidos.

    1) El hecho de que la persona promedio en Puerto Rico tenga un X% de amerindio no significa que el X% de los habitantes de Puerto Rico son amerindios o principalmente amerindios. Así, el Sr Flores dice que la Universidad de Puerto Rico determinó que “un 62 de TODOS los puertorriqueños tiene ADN amerindio”. Con esto Flores concluye que son ante todo amerindios. Eso no es un razonamiento correcto. Puede darse el caso de que todo tengan ADN amerindio, pero todos tienen solo un poquito y todos o casi todos tienen más genes europeos.
    El artículo lo dice: los resultados que se dieron son del promedio.
    2) El “Southwest Asian” no tiene nada que ver con amerindios sino con un origen del Cercano Oriente. Para que entendái eso: un español promedio tiene 48% de “Mediterráneo” 37% de Europeo septentrional y 13% de “South-West Asian”
    3) Si bien es verdad que los europeos mataron a gran cantidad de amerindios, en especial a los hombres, también ocurre otra cosa: muchas amerindias también prefirieron tener hijos de europeos o mestizos que de indios. Esto fue así durante muchas generaciones. Esto se debía a que los europeos o los más blancos tenían un mejor nivel social.

  59. Carmen Rabell
    san Juan, P.R.
    July 28, 5:27 pm

    My family is from San Sebastián y Canóvanas. I madre the DNA test of both familias. All of the menos were caucasian, and my granmother from San Sebastián was native American while my granmother from Canóvanas was Africana (from West África). None of us are from Vieques or Culebras.

  60. Nelson Nieves
    Binghamton, NY
    July 28, 5:07 pm

    What ever it is, I am proud of having Puerto Rican heritage, I consider my self tri-racial and I am very ok with that. My people please don’t despair, just love each other at the end it doesn’t really matter. Love you all !!!

  61. CR
    July 28, 3:17 pm

    Boriqua de Humacao, you couldn’t have daid it any better! No entiendo porque muchos sienten la necesidad de discutir con un estudio científico cuando, me imagino, la mayoria tan siquiera conocen los todos municipios de la isla. Idealisan la herencia taina y minimizan nuestra herencia africana pero les guste o no, no importa cuanto griten, discutan, y dejen ver al mundo sus ideas racistas, idiotas y arrogantes van cambiar sus ADN. Lo que deberian hacer es realizar que esta historia vive en nuestras venas, entre todo ese conflicto nacimos nosotros, una mezcla bella y sentirnos bendecidos de ser lo que somos. Dejen de ser una vergüenza para Puerto Rico y nosotros, los puertoriqueños con educacion.

  62. gladysery
    Carolina
    July 28, 3:07 pm

    My haplogroup is j1b1 , east euroasian to middle east. Their linage from Turkey, Anatolia. The concentration of this haplogroup can be found in UK, irland, and some in Italy. Some said this group are the Hititas so named in history.

  63. Boriqua de Humacao
    San Juan
    July 28, 2:03 pm

    Este estudio escientifico demuestra la verdad, y un gran parte de unos de Uds que han dado comentario aqui demuestan lo bruto que somos (co*o).

    Many of you who have commented here are probably dismayed that the results show the our African heritage is greater than our Taino heritage. Yes, we on average are mostly Caucasian, but most of us on average are more African than we are Taino. However, because it doesn’t conform with the idyllic mythical imagery that has been taught to use since we were toddlers, you choose to find fault with the study. Mind you, none of you have any credentials to cast aspersions on the study’s result, yet you feel as though whatever it is your abuelita or middle school teacher told you carries more weight that a scientifically researched genetic evaluation.

    It’s not necessary to take samples from all 3 million of us to paint a genetic picture. Read a book or at least do a google search about how to develop statistical studies. Learn about uniform distributions, extrapolating, margins of error and estimating. A 386 sample is actually more than enough to get an accurate result of the island’s genetic distribution. The team who did the study more than likely used modern and widely accepted statistical methods the perform the calculations. There is nothing wrong with having African genetic information. Me da pena aveces saber que naci en una islas llena de estupidos, brutos y inutiles que tambien son racistas contra si mismas.

  64. Maekiaphan Phillips
    St. Thomas, Virgin Islands
    July 28, 9:37 am

    Takahi (Greetings) I am the President of Opi’a Taino International, Inc. of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. Because many of us here on Island are from parents, grandparents and great grandparents from Vieques, Culebra and Puerto Rico I am trying to get a grant that would test 50 people within our three islands along with 10 from Tortola that will prove the mtDNA of Taino women still exist in our islands. On July 30, 2014 on St. Croix a proposed Bill acknowledging Amerindians will be the focus of Legislation. This is a historic step towards the future of Taino descendants.
    Hahom for all your hard work and dedication to this project.
    my contact information is 340-514-5665 or email opiataino@yahoo.com

  65. Maekiaphan Phillips
    St. Thomas, V.I.
    July 28, 9:26 am

    Takahi (Greetings) Within the past 3 years I have had several DNA testing done to find my Taino Heritage. I cried when I got the results because it made me realize the injusted did to our Taino men and more so our Taino women. After reading your post it confirms what I learned in my mtDNA, my Family Finder and my brother’s Y DNA testing. Our Father was born in Vieques in 1909. My maternal 6 great grand parents were A lmestica, abt. 1720 Ramona, abt. 1725, Espinosa abt.1725, and Rivera abt. 1730, my paternal 3rd grandfather was Pedro Encarnation born abt 1800 all from Vieques and Culebra. I am thankful for DNA testing because a few years ago I only new the name of my paternal grandparents Justo Rivera 1881 and Maria Bermudez 1871. I have meet so many people thru DNA matches that are just as excited as myself to meet new cousins. I have found that every Spanish name from Vieques and Cuelebra along with Puerto Rico are in my Family Tree.
    I would like to say Hahom (Thanks) for all your work and effort and I hope your organization would be interested in joining with Opi’a Taino International, Inc. of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands because they have started a Tribal Registry for Taino, and Kalinago people.
    Again I say Hahom (Thanks)

  66. Marc
    Fajardo, PR
    July 28, 9:13 am

    I have traced my paternal lineage back to the early 1600’s in Spain, where Church records list my forefathers’ baptisms, marriages, and funerals. A DNA study I had done goes back further, with a 99.9% match with Turkish DNA. I have a large family that traces it’s Puerto Rican roots back to the days of Columbus. Our migration as ancesctral records and DNA searched suggest is: Turkish origins, then Pomplona, Spain possibly in the Middle Ages, then from Pamplona to Fajardo…

  67. Martin Nieves
    Canada
    July 28, 8:34 am

    Some comments here make reference to an UPR study. Said study only sampled mtdna and the results do NOT conflict with this NG article. What NG has done is a more complete study that ever done before by also looking at Y-DNA. I have tested Y-DNA, mtDNA and autosomal and fit into the percetages described here.

  68. Dr. Carlalynne Melendez
    Humacao, Puerto Rico
    July 28, 8:27 am

    Don’t confuse mtDNA with over-all DNA. In our community we have 60% indigenous mtDNA…thus we claim our indigenous heritage via our maternal side (mtDNA). Please read the study so you can respond accordingly. The study has a very high level of confidence. . Here is the link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22569/abstract

  69. Elisabet
    Florida, USA
    July 28, 3:24 am

    Did you notice how many people are last name GONZALEZ. That is very Spanish, in specific. …Spaniard. in other words of Spain origen.

  70. Carlos Rodriguez
    Kansas
    July 28, 1:11 am

    While there may be a percentage of the population that carries indigenous mitochondrial/maternal DNA, the absence of paternal DNA clearly indicates anabsence of said population. Additionally, the question should be: Of those with said DNA, what is the highest, and the mean percentage ofi ndigenous blood/DNA in the samples? I’d wager that the percentage is too low to meet the BIA’s requirement for being indigenous. Assuming a child of mixed awncestry has 50% indigenous DNA, his son has 25%, his grandson 12.5, etc. Assuming also that there have been no indians in PR since the 1600’s, itbecomes likely that even the “purest” of these samples contains anything more than traces.

  71. M. Vazquez
    Colorado
    July 28, 1:08 am

    I was born in Ponce,P.R., my parents had both Taino & Spanish parents. My maternal grandfather/mother were from the Canary Islands and my paternal grandmother was ‘Taina’, she died at 100 years old. I’d love to assist you further with your study. Please feel free to contact me.

  72. Alma Vázquez
    Guaynabo, PR
    July 28, 12:46 am

    I find it appalling that this experiment could even be considered a reliable source of information, since the population sample of individuals is so minimal and regionally specific. For this experiment to be considered reliable, an extensive study of thousands of individuals from all municipalities in Puerto rico needed to have been taken. Moreover, as a member of the high school graduating class of 2014, I can attest to the fact that I have been taught about colonialism, triangle trading, the massacre of native indian men by europeans, and the sexual enslavement of native women in our history classes since I was in the 3rd grade. This year, as a part of my Puerto Rican history class curriculum, we discussed in detail the fact that european women were initially prohibited from traveling to the West Indies, since it was considered “unsafe.” European men who were married were also prohibited from traveling to the West Indies, since the Church believed they would be tempted by the “savage women throwing themselves at them.” Therefore, pretty much the only europeans that were allowed to travel to the West indies were single, middle-class, working men. When the europeans arrived on the island of Puerto Rico, the Taino men tried to revolt and seek their freedom. Most died. The rest, were enslaved and overworked, along with the women, until they died of exhaustion. Since their slaves were dying, the europeans began to buy African slaves. And so the triangle trade was born. I am so sorry that you had to spend so much money, effort, and boundless amounts time to figure out something that you could’ve asked a middle school history teacher. Any teacher. Any student.

  73. Mr. Virgilio Santos
    Vega Baja PR
    July 28, 12:36 am

    Como hacer tal estudio de toda una isla con solo personas de una región, q pasa con las demás personas….

  74. Fern
    Puerto Rico
    July 28, 12:12 am

    This study has been already done by the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus, this is not new… (is not the first time)

  75. Luis Arroyo
    July 27, 11:45 pm

    For those confused with Taino vs “Native Americans”..

    Tainos ARE Native Americans. They are a branch of the Brazilian Amazon ARAWAK family of Natives who migrated thousands of years ago northward toward Venezuela, Guyana the lesser Antilles and Finally Puerto Rico.

    I guess we are Brazilians too. :-)

  76. Linda
    Florida
    July 27, 11:36 pm

    Some people either did not read this report carefully or just don’t understand what they read. It is not saying that Puertoriqueños don’t have Native American blood. It is saying that they have found no Y chromosomes with Native American DNA. Since women are XX chromosomes and men XY, that means no male Native American DNA is found in anyone. There is plenty X chromosome Native American DNA in everyone. So yes borinqueños son una mezcla de indio, europeo y africano. Relax people. What is so sad is to realize that the Taino men died off without any male offspring surviving and the female Tainos were misused by the conquistadores, and gave birth to boys and girls with Taino X chromosome.

  77. Marianne
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 11:22 pm

    Actually, Puerto Rico was discovered in the year 1493 by Cristobal Colón (Christopher Columbus) on his second trip, although some historians debate on the theory that it was discovered by Martín Alonso Pinzón in 1492 , during which time, he was separated from Colón.

  78. Luis Arroyo
    July 27, 11:18 pm

    Im sorry,but 386 individuals do not represent 3,600,000 islanders plus the 5,100,000 living stateside.
    Thats 8,700,000 people represented by 386 CHERRY PICKED INDIVIDUALS?

    What about the hundreds of thousands of non Spaniard European and Mideast families (Father+ Mother+ Children )that immigrated to Puerto Rico after the “Royal Decree Of Graces”? Irish ,French,Corsican Italian, Even German Surnames are as common as Spanish Surnames.

    Look at PR’s Governor. Alejandro GARCIA PADILLA.
    PR state secretary Ingrid BIAGGI Vila.
    Then you have David BERNIER,who is acting governor when Padilla is out on business.
    Jaime PERELLO. Even east INDIAN Asians such as Eduardo BHATIA.
    Then theres the pro statehood politicians.
    Former Republican Governor Luis Fortuño BURSET
    Minority leader Thomas Rivera SHATZ.
    Former Governor Pedro ROSELLO.
    US Congressional “Resident Commissioner” Pedro Pierluisi.
    Historical Figures with Irish ancestry, Ramon POWER GIRALT. (First person to describe himself as “Puerto Rican” before Spain’s government/ Monarchy)
    Hyram BITHORN ( First Puerto Rican in major league Baseball.), Alejandro O REILLY oversaw construction of EL MORRO. Cayetano COLL (COLE) Y TOSTE ,Island historian.

    My point is, I could easily have done the study at Rincon and said Puerto Ricans are 10% Anglo Saxon.
    Done it at Yauco and said 60% are Italian/French Corsicans. Done it with 386 Loizans and said 60% are sub saharan african.

    Puerto Rico is an island of immigrants. Not just the US proper and Canada.

  79. Felipe Soto
    Urbana, Illinois
    July 27, 11:13 pm

    Reading the comments it is clear to me that people are confused about the origin of the genetic information. The information in mitochondria is inherited only form the mother and in PR more than half the people carry mitochondria inherited from Taino women. The information in the Y chromosome is inherited only from the father, and in PR that seems to have been inherited mostly from European men (my own Y originated in North Africa, most likely moor). The genetic information in the other chromosomes is inherited from both parents, and in PR that information is about 10-12% Taino, about the same amount Sub Saharan African and the rest (up to 70%) European. In summary our genetic make up reflects the interaction between the three groups that have shared the island in the the 500 years. Some individuals will have more African genetic heritage, others more Taino and some more European. In the end we are all a blend and that is part of being Puerto Rican

  80. Lourdes Moya
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 10:15 pm

    From where is this study?, because should be others before this, because what the result of this study is the same as taught in the UPR by Dr. Cadilla since the 70’s. There is no surprised for me.

  81. Victor Flores
    United States
    July 27, 9:54 pm

    I dont believe the study. The University of Puerto Rico had done a study, where it clearly shows that 62% of ALL Puerto Ricans have Native American DNA. Yes we do have European and African blood also, but the study, very scientifically well done concludes that we have Native American in us, by a huge percent.

  82. Amarylis Torres Nogueras vda. de Esquilin
    Florida, P.R.
    July 27, 9:52 pm

    Este studio es muy interesante me gustaria tener mas informacion. yo se que por el lado materno mi visa abuela era espanola y que tengo rastros judios atraves de ella.

  83. Nilda Marrero
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 9:27 pm

    Whats my history?

  84. esther centeno
    aguadilla puerto rico
    July 27, 9:21 pm

    may-19-1979
    my mother name is amalia medina laguer
    my father name is tomas centeno luciano

  85. esther centeno
    aguadilla puerto rico
    July 27, 9:20 pm

    aguadilla puerto rico
    may-19-1979
    my mother name is amalia medina laguer
    my father name is tomas centeno luciano

  86. James Francis Jr.
    Louisville Ky
    July 27, 8:11 pm

    I was born in Harlem New York in 1955, to this day I’ve never met my father, my birth cert: says James Francis from St.Thomas V.I. But my family tells me my father is Benjamin Cordero from Puerto Rico. Would love to know the facts before my last breath is takin, it matters not which, jus want to send my three boys on the right path:-). Would love to submit test, GOD BLESS

  87. Jorge Gonzalez
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 7:50 pm

    Let’s go back 520 years ago to find the photographer who took the picture. National Geographic still depicting Puerto Rico as the agrarian economy it was 70 years ago. As for the differences between paternal and maternal DNA, it is easy to explain: slave Native men don’t get to reproduce, slave women reproduce the offspring of their owner/rapists – History of the Americas. Oh, and we did have a similar / parallel system to keep track of our origins centuries ago, though not as accurate: trace back the last names in your family. That’s why patronymics and matronymics are important. In my family, for instance, we still trace back twelve generations, keeping track of our roots from Spain, Italy, Greece, even Holland. You should pair the two systems for mutual corroboration. And do hire a younger photographer in this era of smart phones, please.

  88. Carlos Muniz
    Caguas. PR
    July 27, 7:44 pm

    I have read most of the comments here, and we boricuas do not learn to appreciated anything. This we can used it as a start to a whole of the population. And you have to consider that science is not cheap. But we all know that we boricuas are more Tainos than anything.

  89. Javier Ruiz Casillas
    San Juan
    July 27, 7:28 pm

    Born 1967
    Father Julio Ruiz Martinez
    Mother Leonarda Casillas Negrón

  90. Rafael A. Delgado Simonet
    San Antonio, TX
    July 27, 7:21 pm

    Thank you for the information. I have tested with Family Finder and my DNA is as follows:
    – Y-DNA Haploroup R1b1a2 – R-M269.
    – mt-DNA Haplogroup A-2z.
    – 64.94 % European, 25 % Midle Eastern, and 10% Native American.
    P-312 who walked the prairies of southern France, Europe, was my ancestors.
    My paternal, Delgado family, is from San Miguel de Abona, Tenerife, Islas Canarias.
    My maternal, Simonet/before Simo, were from Alaro and Soller, Mallorca and came to Mallorca from Cataluna with King Jaume I from Aragon when he invaded in 1229.

  91. Dr. Carlalynne Melendez
    Humacao, Puerto Rico
    July 27, 7:13 pm

    Naguake Community (Our Abundant Land Community) is a community that uses the indigenous culture as the driving force to achieve community self-sufficiency and sustainability. Our community has a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors and traditions rooted in our indigenous heritage. This heritage is deeply reflected in the school-community activities, programs, and projects that have been implemented to achieve community improvement at the social, cultural and economic levels. We claim our indigenous heritage and identity based on multidisciplinary studies in the fields of anthropology, ethnography, sociology, geography and biology. These studies were conducted in the communities that make up today Naguake Community; located in southeastern region of Boriken. Also, and very important, we claim an indigenous heritage based on results from genetic studies conducted in our community between 2010 and 2012, in which 60 percent of our population have indigenous genetic marker (mtDNA). For more information you can read about this study in the following link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22569/abstract

  92. Yolanda Flores
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 6:42 pm

    I wonder where I can RECEIVE information about where I can get tested for DNA and saver, my maternal grandmother was Taina, yme like to know where I can find information or someone can explain me … thanks.

  93. Madeline
    Canóvanas, PR
    July 27, 6:28 pm

    Ese cuadro asi lo tengo pintado por el gran pintor Cajiga, desde el 1981. como la ves. eh.

  94. Michael Baez
    Guayama
    July 27, 5:55 pm

    Honestly, this information simply concluded what I kept thinking through high school after my world history classes. It was always taught to us that spaniards came, killed the men, took the women as trophies-typical european tactic to subjugate a population back in the 15th century- and after years of breeding you attain our results. What they do not state is that we also have much of the african descent from the slaves the spaniards brought over, who also intermixed with the lower class citizens of the colony-those who were confirmed descended from tainos- as a result our structure holds dna from the three main origin points-native america, eurasia and africa. A fun topic but sad that they needed to do extensive gene maping to find this out when it was mostly common knowledge in junior and high school courses in puerto rico…

  95. AIDA MORA
    QUEBRADILLAS PR
    July 27, 5:43 pm

    TO ME THIS IS NOT SO CLEAR 12% NATIVE AMERICAN NAAHHHH HARD TO BELIEVE BESIDES THAT DOES NOT CHANGE ANYTHING WE STILL A MINORITY RACE IN THIS PLANET EVEN DOUGH WE HAVE ACHIEVED SO MANNY THINGS FOR EXAMPLE POLITICS, LAWS AND A LOT MORE WE ARE STILL BEEN TREATED AS MINORITY AND ALIENS STRANGERS TO THEIR LAND
    IN MY OPINION I LOVE BEEN A PUERTORRICAN PROUD OF MY ROOTS INDIO TAINO AFRICAN

  96. Bibi
    Indiana
    July 27, 5:41 pm

    Muy interesante de por cierto pero ya yo se de donde vengo….Mi abuela es española nacida y criada se mudo a NY cuando tenia 19 años conocio a my abuelo que es 75% Taino 25% africano…mi abuela tiene ojos azules y mi abuelo piel trigeña…..Estoy bien orgullosa que naci en Puerto Rico y que mi mezcla es una de tantas.

  97. Juan Pagan
    Florida
    July 27, 5:35 pm

    This is an impressive study, but reminds me of that philosophical question that our beloved Juan Boria always asked… and I quote “y tu Abuela a donde esta”?”…

  98. Jonathan Gonzalez
    USA
    July 27, 5:25 pm

    326 persons from the south east coast only? We can’t jump to universal conclusions of such small sample. For example we know that some Tainos escape to the central and mountain zone of the island. Also the African slave population were bigger at the haciendas zones which happen to be at the coasts. Even when PR is such a small territory each zone evolves differently and any DNA study should consider that.

  99. alexander santiago afanador
    manati puerto rico
    July 27, 5:00 pm

    De acuerdo con el comment del Sr.Covas; para llegar a una conclusion se debe realizar estudio con personas de toda la region de la isla.Soy de utuado y muchosvde mis conocidos y fam sud perfiles son indigenas.Claro que existen varios con perfiles caucasicos.

  100. alexander santiago afanador
    manati puerto rico
    July 27, 4:56 pm

    Ciertamente el estudio se basó en una region especifica; así que existe un % de diferencia en la misma; estoy de acuerdo con el Sr. Covas; sobre dicho estudios.

  101. Nydia
    USA
    July 27, 4:53 pm

    Is 326 individuals from a 3.8 million population a considerable representative sample for this type of research? Did you take into consideration that Vieques also has Dutch and French influences? Thanks for the info, but I do have reservations in regards to your results.

  102. Tomás Ballester Tió
    San Juan, Puerto Rico
    July 27, 4:11 pm

    With all due respect Mr. Canales. I hardly doubt a DNA, study equates to our political future. I’m as Puertorriqueño or Boricua as any and all that are associated to your political movement but I do not share your political view.
    Our political views are so different that we might as well all be Martians.

  103. Karlo R. Claudio
    Caguas
    July 27, 4:09 pm

    I am happy that a study like this reveals more of us – Puerto Ricans -.

  104. yahaira
    Cabo Rojo PR
    July 27, 4:06 pm

    I LOVE THE INFORMATION!! EXCELENT WORK!!

  105. Pablo Astacio
    Cabo Rojo Puerto Rico
    July 27, 3:34 pm

    Very interesting article thank.you keep up the.good.work.

  106. Luis E. Laó González
    San Juan, PR USA
    July 27, 3:31 pm

    Now we the people of Puerto Rico can be considered as Native American. This status, I consider it a highly privilege one. Also we have such a strong European ancestry that is unbelievable. We come from all parts of the planet including the heart of Africa. Nevertheless, we are mighty proud of our ancestry!

  107. Hector F. Gonzalez- Benitez
    Groton, Ct.
    July 27, 3:23 pm

    Please send me information on how I can help.

  108. Ody Cintron
    Sabana Grande
    July 27, 3:22 pm

    Saludos, a mi entender es exactamente lo mismo que se ha dicho SIEMPRE. Somos una mezcla de 3 razas (africana, europea e indigena). Claro que los Tainos guardan relacion con los Indios Americanos y Euro-Asiaticos, pues dichos Nativos llegan desde Eura-Asia a America atravez del estrecho de Bering y luego al Caribe.

  109. Rick Santiago
    San Juan, PR
    July 27, 3:11 pm

    Los apellidos y color de ojo son factores incluidos en este estudio? En nuestro caso dicen revelar un proceder Judio Sefárdico.

  110. Jesus Navas
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 3:02 pm

    Real Cedula de Gracia, an old law established by the Spanish, could explain some mayor European migration later on to Puerto Rico and its influence in our dna. I did took the test because I was curious.

  111. HC
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 3:00 pm

    Nelson…., is your comment based on the hopes to instigate a personal political agenda??? Hummmmm???
    If so, rest assure that PR does not have any desire to be part of Spain. That is past history. Today, Spain offers nothing to the world as they are having huge problems, certainly, not having to add more to their plate, or us Puertorican. I be part of Native American Heritage than be part of the murderers Spaniards who committed attrocities against the Tainos in the name of religion and gold.
    No to Spain. Don’t delude yourself.

  112. maria feliciano
    Aguadilla..P.R
    July 27, 2:40 pm

    I would love to know how to fine info..of my heretige….

  113. Luis M. Guzmán
    Bayamon Puerto Rico
    July 27, 2:39 pm

    Excelente información.Me es de sumo interés.A sus órdenes.

  114. Luis A. Covas Sr.
    Arkansas
    July 27, 2:35 pm

    I wonder what would have been the result if instead of the southeastern part of P.R. the study would have been of the central mountain region of the Island. Is a known fact that area persisted with Spaniard descendants (white blue eyes) and last strong hold of Tainos seeking refuge (Guayama-Carite-Cayey, Utuado, Adjuntas ).

  115. Maria E. Cordeiro-Hernandez
    New Bedford, MA
    July 27, 2:35 pm

    Nelson, te deje mensaje en tu telefono, pero me interesa mas informacion del proyecto, he estado viajando a la Isla por lo menos cada 3 meses en el ultimo a~o, entre otras cosas tratando de conseguir casa para regresar luego de mas de 30 a~os de “exilio” por razones personales, no siguiendo ningun sue~o Americano. Lo que me saco de la Isla ya no es un peligro para mi vida. Pero pienso que si logro regresar puedo hacer una difernencia en un pais donde la ignorancia, el odio y la intolerancia, han llegado a niveles ridiculos pues siempre son los mismos ignorantes gritando. Volviendo al proyecto, dejame saber que abarca y hacia donde se dirige. Mi numero de telefono es (774)328-8364. Espero recibir contestacion.
    Sinceramente,
    Maria

  116. Marisol Suárez
    San Juan, Puerto Rico
    July 27, 2:32 pm

    Greetings for your study! I would really like to keep receiving more information about its progress! Nevertheless, when we, puertoricans talked with our grandparents many, many of them informed about their ancestors and, yes, a great number of them were European males who migrated to our Island and intermixed with indigenous women(among other ethnic mixes). This is well known in our Island, and, with truly due respect, so it is our colonial past: not a surprise for us!!!

  117. Eli Encarnacion
    PO Box 5368, Caguas PR 00726-5368
    July 27, 2:31 pm

    When you mentioned in your studies the geographical outline did you include that European migration is the lead source of all migrating nations including the USA.

  118. Felix H. Alomar Pabon
    Puerto Rico
    July 27, 2:27 pm

    I took this test but with FamilyTreeDna and my results are: Direct Paternal Ydna R1b-P312-DF27 European and direct Maternal Mtdna H European…My Population Finder results are:

    Europe (Western European): French, Spanish 44.87%
    Middle East: Druze, Jewish 24.13%
    Native American: Maya, Columbian 16.85%
    Africa (West African): Yoruba, Mandenka 14.15%

  119. jose f cruz
    Fajardo P.R
    July 27, 2:22 pm

    Viequez had 9 diferent flags before belonging to P.R. Including Dutch
    I belong to a taino tribe by maternal birth an d paterna birth
    My wife is caribe from viequez by mother and taino by father. And my dougter is 50-50

  120. Francoise Padro
    Youngstown, Ohio.
    July 27, 2:22 pm

    I would like to participate. I’m born and raised in Puerto Rico.

  121. mayra
    puerto rico cidra
    July 27, 2:18 pm

    am so happy somebody finally think like me I really like to know

  122. Nsantiago
    July 27, 2:03 pm

    Most of our paternal ancestors were murderers and rapists. I guess history is written in blood and tears.

  123. Antonio
    PUERTO RICO
    July 27, 12:40 pm

    Great article but I think that limiting your gene pool to the southeast of the island and Vieques area could mislead some results. All over the island you can find people with Taino heritage, specially on the center of the island and the northwest, that there’s a self proclaimed Taino community which could shed some light on the Taino genetical lineage

  124. Olga Valentin Reyes
    San Antonio, Texas
    July 27, 11:11 am

    would love to find out more about your efforts.

    Gracias..

  125. Sandra Cubi-Harris
    United States
    July 27, 10:05 am

    I found the genographic results enlightening and it has fueled my curiosity to find out more about my own family’s DNA. As a child and adolescent my history lessons of Puerto Ricans included mythology of the Tainos escaping obliteration in the hills of the island. It would seem that the males did not. Many of the stories I heard growing up included claims of having direct Taino lineage as a result. Further exploration is certainly warranted.

  126. Ariel Ayala
    Moca,PR
    July 27, 10:01 am

    Very interesting. Decimation of indigenous men (Tainos), is unclear. But base on different accounts, many perished to hard labor,deceases and slavery, but the majority escape to neighboring islands, joining forces with their former enemies the Caribbean. Since they lost everything to the Europeans, including their women…

  127. steve
    fajardo
    July 27, 9:51 am

    Thanks National Geographic for sharing this article ..

  128. Karen
    Maryland
    July 27, 9:47 am

    Wao! not surprise with the results! We have blend so many times that is amazing! Now it would be nice to see if the same results would come out from the southwest part of the island and the central part of the island, since we r closer in the west to two of the countries,that back then had the most African origin population and the central where people tend to be more fair skin and lighter color eyes

  129. Luis Bruno
    United States
    July 27, 8:52 am

    No surprise. Columbus and his gang arrived killed the males raped the women.

  130. Ivonne
    PR
    July 27, 8:12 am

    What do you mean when you refer that the average Puerto Rican individual carries 12% of Native American DNA? Native Americans may refer to indigenous peoples in North and South America. I would like to know the specifics.

  131. samantha
    USA
    July 27, 7:50 am

    Ok, now tell us something new us pertoricans didnt know. -_- we were taught this first grade. And infact the women were rapped not willingly intermixed. Yes it a dark past but this old news. and not all full blooded tainos were wiped clean. Some escaped into other islands like Cuba, dominican republic, and other surrounding places some even leading to Florida. And guessing this a dna project is of very few selected people. There are puerto ricans who have a higher percentage in their native roots. Just so you know.

  132. Eduardo Torrech
    Cataño, P.R.
    July 26, 11:49 pm

    I would like to read about the geological formation of the Antilles Islands and how they come to be the way they are.

  133. Jessica Torres
    United States
    July 26, 11:21 pm

    We are 65% Eurasian…how is Spain NOT our motherland? Live in Peace and quit with this nonsense. Without the US, PR would be like Cuba or Haiti…third world. Awful. Leave it alone.

  134. JJ
    USA
    July 26, 9:23 pm

    Nelson, déjate de payasadas.

  135. Tito Stevens
    Springfield MA
    July 26, 8:05 pm

    I was born and raised in San Juan, P.R., and lived there until I was 18 years old. My Geno 2.0 results are as follows:
    51% Mediterranean 26% Northern European 19% Southwest Asian 2% Native American
    Note: In some cases regional percentages may not total 100%.
    Not a drop of Taino blood or anything else except the mix of Southwest Asian and Native American..
    So, what does that make me?

  136. David Valentin
    July 26, 7:32 pm

    I recently had my DNA analyzed by 23&me, i meet the criteria you described European,African and Amerindian . Also I have Jewish, middle eastern, British and south Asian Indian heritage. PR’s geneology is very diverse and complex. My maternal family is from vieques

  137. Gaspar
    San Diego,Ca.
    July 26, 6:37 pm

    Los espan~oles estaban mas mezclado que una batida de 20 sabores antes de venir a Puerto Rico, durante cientos sino miles de an~os se mezclaron con moros,nordicos ,romanos, judios,celtas,grecos y solo dios sabe cuantas otras razas.

  138. D Kirby
    Denver, Colorado
    July 26, 6:19 pm

    Mr. Canals,
    Not only does the genetic history support your project’s hopes and desires, so do I and, surely, many others. The decimation of the indigenous male population and theft of your nation are an historical disgrace. Best wishes for the success of your project, Sir. The GenoGraphic Project is doing wonderful work.

  139. Andes Guerra-Mondragon
    Miami
    July 26, 6:00 pm

    I have a feeling the Tainos were part of a global tribe of island people extending as far as French Polinesia due to the similarities in the art they left behind and their “ato” configuration of thei habitats.

  140. Yvette Martinez
    Genographic Project
    July 26, 5:56 pm

    How does one become able to participate in this study?

  141. Jaime Pereira
    July 26, 3:02 pm

    Nelson Canals. Your “social movement” holds as much relevance to our political future, as it would to consult the spirits of our dead Tainos on this matter. Your declaration of Borikén as our original motherland is an exercise in redundancy, as this is a point we all understand and is not up for debate.

  142. Ana Torres
    July 26, 1:24 pm

    Greetings,
    I am interested in knowing my ancestors and my Taino Dna…How do I find out.

    THANK YOU SO MUCH !!!!!
    Peace
    Ana

  143. Eugenio Alvarez
    San Juan, Puerto Rico
    July 26, 1:19 pm

    Based on percentages besides the 3% unknown DNA our ancestry is mostly European then African followed by Native American; why waste energy about Boriken as a new motherland? There is nothing noble about this new movement Nelson it just tries to create another separation on human race. Yes it’s in our background and blood but surely is not a majority.

  144. Rodrigo Cruz
    Ponce.PuertoRico
    July 26, 12:23 pm

    INTERESANTIIMA INFORMACION….como maestro le hare llegar la misma a mis estudiantes…gracias y adelante.

  145. Nelson W. Canals
    Puerto Rico
    July 26, 9:21 am

    The basic findings of your reseach has already helped to build the foudations of a novel project to restore the sovereigty that the Tainos had over their original teritory, BORIKEN. The social movement BORICUAS POR UN NUEVO PAÍS has declare that BORIKEN is our original Mother Land and not Spain or the USA. We need your help to better define the “BORICUA GENOMA” that could stablish our biological base. You coul write me to my E-Mail or call me ; 787-344-7668

  146. Ilia Bauman
    Melbourne,Florida
    July 25, 8:33 pm

    Very interesting facts. I wonder about my own a
    family tree.

  147. J Rivera
    Florida
    July 25, 7:57 pm

    I am Puertorican and paid for my genetic composition privately just to find out “who I am” I found I am 71.4% European with varying degrees of Iberian, Italian, French, German, Ukrainian and Ashkenazi Jew! 10.6% Native American 7.5% Sub-Saharan African 0.1% Middle Eastern and 10.2% “Unassigned” happy to be a true melting pot recipient!

  148. Aleida Encarnacion
    Estados Unidos
    July 25, 7:50 pm

    Me hice esta prueba hace alrededor de 3 años. Soy de Vieques, Puerto Rico y mi resultado es Haplogrupo A2. Con este articulo puedo entender porqué uno de mis compañeros se molestó al recibirlos, ya que creía ser indio y salió europeo. Me interesa tener más información sobre mi proveniencia a ver si algún día podemos encontrarnos.

  149. Laura Santiago
    New York City.
    July 25, 7:04 pm

    This is exciting. Thanks, can’t wait to submit my swab to NG.