National Geographic

Illegal Trade: The Rhino and the Bling

Picture of injured rhino running

A rhino without its horn is on the run. Photograph courtesy Karl Ammann.

So your latest model Ferrari is parked in a prominent spot outside the top five-star hotel in the capital. You are meeting friends for a drink and since it is pleasantly warm you wear a short sleeve shirt so there is no way they can miss the golden Rolex on your left wrist—they will know it is the real thing. But what about your right arm? Maybe a rhino horn bangle worth the same as the wrist watch (about $15,000) would make for a good conversation piece, not yet on the must-have list of most of your friends.

The feeling when traveling through the key urban centers of Vietnam and China is that wealth is only really accepted when it can be presented in a conspicuous way. Status symbols and lifestyle products are what it is all about when competing for social status, and rhino horn jewelry and ivory have become part of this demand characteristic.

We have now visited a household which also serves as a store and workshop on three different occasions. It is about an hour’s drive from Hanoi city center. On all three occasions we saw and documented with hidden camera large amounts of raw and semi-worked ivory including end product souvenir and jewelry items, as well as rhino horn products. Even on our first visit, in 2011, we were offered a rhino horn prayer bead bracelet. We watched the demonstration by the owner shining a torch light through one of the beads and explaining how we could ensure it was the genuine article. Pushing open a door in the basement of the house, we entered a bedroom with a wide range of cut up ivory pieces in cardboard boxes. Some of the ivory was already worked into finished bracelets. Since we had arrived during a local holiday the workshop upstairs was closed, however we managed to film a group of Chinese tourists being brought in by their tour guide to buy a number of chopstick sets as well as bracelets. All items were carefully measured with calipers, which together with a digital scale were part of the paraphernalia used in each sales transaction. When we asked to see some raw rhino horn an iPhone containing images of various horns was pushed into our hands. (Related: “Rhino Wars.”)

Picture of carving ivory

A worker carves ivory. Photograph courtesy Karl Ammann.

The Illegal Trade Continues

On our second visit to the shop earlier this year the story was pretty much the same. This time there were Chinese clients buying the bottom half of a very large rhino horn. They gave their instructions on how to cut it, marking it first with pencil lines which were then followed with a band saw. They explained that these cuts would result in a higher yield of bangles. The cut out inner core would be worked into the beads which would then be shaped into prayer bracelets.

We asked where the horn came from and were told Mozambique (the chance being high that it was a Kruger rhino) via Kenya. This was not very surprising with Mozambique having lost its last rhino earlier in the year and this trade route being well established. We were also told which towns in China the shop owners could deliver to, so Chinese buyers did not have the risk of taking the illegal items across an international border. The carvers also pointed out the best land border where it would be easy to cross back into China with their prohibited merchandise. Since as a westerner there would be less of a risk for me at the border, I actually went as far as testing the water and offered to take some bracelets to our next destination in China. They declined, pointing out that they had it all under control. On this visit we also managed to go upstairs to a workshop where they were filing away at raw ivory pieces turning them into bracelets. We were told that the same machinery would be used to work the rhino horn pieces.

Back downstairs we ended up in the main sales and display room again, looking at various pieces of worked ivory, chop sticks and bangles. There were a few cardboard boxes half open and when I reached in I pulled out some cylindrical objects painted dark brown with a new year’s wish written on the side in Vietnamese.

The objects were too heavy to be wood and when I asked, it was explained to me that it was ivory disguised as wood to transport it without any problems. Not surprisingly a few months later two Vietnamese travelers were arrested at Jomo Kenyatta airport with exactly these kinds of “wooden” souvenir items. The story of the minimal sentences they received was well documented in the Kenyan press. I was now convinced that the owners of this home and shop were indeed key players in the rhino horn and ivory trade business, not just middlemen and women, but had their own couriers importing for them. (Related: Worsening Rhino War Strains Countries’ Relations.”)

Picture of fake rhino horn

Fake rhino horn ready for sale in China. Photograph courtesy Karl Ammann.

Considerable Demand

I sent back a local contact with a hidden camera and he encountered yet another group of Chinese tourists having been taken to the shop by their guide, negotiating and buying various items. There was a large chunk of rhino horn with tell-tale pieces cut out of it. My local investigator asked if this was the same horn as last time: “No, no. We go through several horns a week and we can no longer keep up with the demand for bangles selling hundreds of them at about $10,000 to $15,000 a pop, depending on weight.” All these discussions were recorded and transcribed and the price remained constant whichever rhino horn items were being discussed. The basis for all calculations was $45,000 per kilogram. Ivory was $1,200 per kilogram. Our man was told that some Chinese buyers purchase up to ten of these bracelets in one go and then resell them back home. He also learned that the shop owner has a sister who operates a very similar establishment 100 meters farther down the same road.

Considering that rhino horn in a neighboring village was $20,000 per kilogram some three years ago, clearly there was and is considerable potential to make a nice profit from an appreciating asset. The more rhinos that get poached, the rarer the commodity becomes and the higher the price will go. Pretty much a no-lose scenario for the investor and a no-win scenario for the rhino.

We have already established that at the retail level approximately 90 percent of the small pieces of rhino horn sold in the traditional Chinese medicine shops are fake. In Guangzhou, China we filmed in a shop that had more rhino horns on display than are removed from Africa in a whole year. All of them were fake, but advertised as the real thing. Combine these facts with this latest development and we have a scenario where all economic theories regarding the demand and supply of rhino horn go out of the window. If 90 percent of the retail market is already fake, then the overall demand is a multiple of the horns coming out of Africa. How will this affect the now heated discussions around legalizing the trade? Where might demand level out and how many horns would it take to stabilize prices or bring them down? These new fashion accessories which seem to have come up almost overnight appear to have become a major source of demand that nobody thought of a year or two ago. As further evidence of this diversifying market in rhino horn we also found horn tip signature seals just like the ivory Hankos in Japan. Ivory Hankos historically represented a major demand source for raw ivory and were often cut to the right dimensions at source in Africa before being transported to Japan, while what we saw was fake but being sold as the real thing. The question is, what will come next? The drinking cups and tea sets are already on display in some places. Where and when will it stop?

Picture of rhino horn bangles

Buyers compare bangles made from ivory. Photograph courtesy Karl Ammann.

It seems extinction is the answer, as is happening fast with the tiger for which similar demand characteristics are in place. From the tooth or claw set in gold hanging on a yuppie’s neck to the tiger glue cake which is very popular as traditional Chinese medicine throughout Vietnam and finally the pelt making for a trophy which one does not have to hide.

I guess the only hope left is in law enforcement at the demand end. In Africa dozens of poachers are already killed annually by law enforcement agencies protecting rhinos and elephants, and behind each dead poacher a dozen new and eager candidates seem to line up. This is unlikely to change with prices still on the increase. On the Asian side, current law enforcement efforts are mostly about lip service and window dressing. None of the players we interacted with seemed to be in any way worried about any enforcement official putting them in handcuffs. Clearly the buyers of these rhino horn bangles will not want to hide them in a jewelry box. They have to be worn or the status symbol aspect goes out of the window. Showing off these items at the same time says: I am above the law. It seems that showing off an illegal lifestyle product of this nature gives it even more of a prestige appeal. (Related: “Do You Support Sale of Rhino Stockpiles?“)

Creating Awareness

With this demand characteristic where will all this end? Will the visits to Africa of a Chinese baseball star or a famous Chinese actress get through to the players spending $15,000 on a rhino horn bracelet? Will there be enough time to change this cultural and very materialistic outlook through education? When should we start to demand that some real enforcement takes place?

I discussed this with an established Chinese conservationist during a meeting in South Africa. She pointed out that the Shahtoosh shawls from the protected chiru antelopes had for some time been a status symbol among society players in the west and had contributed to the decline of the wild population. I responded that probably few buyers in India or Nepal buying these shawls had any idea where exactly the wool came from and what the status was of the chiru antelope. I then went on to tell her that I remember reading a story in Vanity Fair of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service actually raiding the homes of socialites to confiscate these shawls and take the owners to court for illegal import or possession. I suggested we have yet to see this happening to the wealthy consumer in China or Vietnam. Plus, of course a few hundred wealthy individuals in the west wanting such a shawl in their closets did not exactly compare with the tens of thousands of newly wealthy individuals in China, all geared to show off their newfound wealth. Re-reading the 1999 Vanity Fair story, it turned out that the key supplier was a Hong Kong-based outfit shipping these goods for charity and society auctions in New York.

In the overall context though, she had a point. Creating awareness clearly needs to be a key priority. If an awareness campaign is not combined with serious enforcement measures on the ground however, the effects might be too slow to save our rhinos and elephants. Maybe raiding a few society homes and getting the story in the Chinese equivalent of Vanity Fair could be a major step in the right direction?

Imagine the scenario with our guy waiting at the bar for his friends to arrive, desperate to show off his new jewelry. It would be a major let down if instead of his friends arriving, he is soon surrounded by police officers. His new expensive rhino horn bracelet and golden Rolex are replaced with metallic handcuffs as he’s arrested and dragged out of the five-star hotel, past his Ferrari and eventually his mug shot is exposed to other socialites in the Chinese equivalent of Vanity Fair. At least we can go on dreaming…

The documented evidence of our visits to this workshop and sales outlet outside Hanoi has now gone to various international enforcement agencies. Let’s see what happens.

More dreaming would be my guess…

Watch the video below for more background information on how the data for this story was collected.

Karl Ammann is a conservationist and wildlife photographer who has lived in East Africa for the last 35 years. He has authored and co-authored a range of titles covering wildlife and conservation issues. He has published features in a wide range of publications and produced a number of investigative documentaries which explored many aspects of the illegal wildlife trade.


  1. Nancy
    December 19, 2013, 5:42 pm

    Share and share and share

  2. Sheila
    December 17, 2013, 8:43 pm

    It’s no wonder, in a country where they treat their people with such disrespect, that they care even less for animals. Their poor are left to live in cages. Yes, in cages, so why would they treat animals any better. The governments are corrupt in these Asian countries as they are in many African countries and wealth over rides the plight of any or all animals whether near extinction or not. If only the increase in natural disasters were to impede these wealthy inhumane humans and leave the moral innocent people alone, this world would be a better one. There will always be greed and corruption and I don’t believe the poaching will ever end until these individuals are taken out and put in prison.

  3. Kristine
    December 17, 2013, 11:35 am

    The Chinese “customs” and way of life baffles me because all I’ve been reading lately is China’s horrible treatment of all kinds of animals. 90% of angora fur is manufactured in China where workers rip fur from live, screaming rabbits. There has been stories of Chinese vendors on the street killing and selling dogs for their meat. And now the Chinese view Rhino horns as a sign of wealth and sell and manufacture this too?? I just don’t understand how this country gets away with these inhumane, unethical and disgusting acts?? It needs to stop.

  4. Linda Wark
    December 16, 2013, 10:42 pm

    Can’t imagine being so superficial as to define myself by “things”. Especially things that are so covertly obtained. I hope I never meet those that keep this trade alive. From poachers to purchasers they are a disgusting breed of human, if not for their inclination to take what is not theirs, then for their ability to turn a blind eye in favour of fashion or status.

  5. kathy mitchell
    December 16, 2013, 4:41 pm

    We can hav bling without destroying endangered animals. There is manufactured diamonds etc . That is the bling that should be worn. We should not wear anything that is such as rino horn, ivory fur. Fur isnt needed now days we hav efficient heating. The pe money off this should be treated like murderers and people who buy these things shpuld be made to pay huge donations to endangered animals, hit them in their pocket, and this should be all countries.

  6. Jackie Hutchison
    United Kingdom
    December 16, 2013, 12:08 pm

    The penalties should be greater for anyone having anything to do with poaching the dealers and the people that think it’s a sign of wealth. To me it shows a person is totally selfish, greedy and couldn’t give a stuff about animals and the pain they suffer for their pleasure. Or that younger generations won’t have a chance to see these wonderful animals in their natural habitat. If you wear ivory or fur then you should hang your heads in shame, attitudes have to change. These people that wear, sell or actually kill the animals are the lowest of the low. I would shoot the poachers on sight and lock the rest up and throw away the key. They are all scum. Don’t wait till it’s too late, something must be done now, it could already be too late. How sad. Why do humans always think they have the right to destroy everything living for their own gratification.

  7. Karen Cobb
    United Kingdom
    December 16, 2013, 10:55 am

    So if they are using 7 a week that is 364 a year, that is half the amount of Rhino’s poached and de horned in a year. That is a disgusting number of Rhino lost for the look good and make you feel good factor. So lets all wear our Parent’s when they pass around our necks instead, same stuff, bone.

  8. Julien Crowther
    December 16, 2013, 10:42 am

    The fact that these people have no qualms about buying anything, from ivory, rhino horn or tiger parts, no matter how endangered the animals are whose body parts are being used, just goes to show that they will stop at nothing. Fashion accessories, fake medicine, trinkets – our wildlife is being rapidly wiped out to feed this trade. More enforcement, stiffer penalties, education and awareness, all must be used to stop this before they are extinct. Legalisation of trade must never be allowed to happen. The demand is growing, the supply is dwindling and the animals are paying the price for human greed.

  9. paulm
    December 14, 2013, 4:46 pm

    Chinese if was fashionable would wear human trinkets . They are still a primitive people trouble is they are everywhere. It is the western govt’s fault for moving manufacturing to such terrible places. Nature in the future will be consumed everywhere I am afraid while countries like these become wealthy.

  10. Lynn De Lacey
    December 13, 2013, 6:33 pm

    It may seem a little extreme to some, but maybe the greedy cowardly dealers and buyers of rhino and elephant ivory should receive the same sentence as the poachers in the field, shot on sight. Guaranteed there would be an instant halt to the trade. Nothing like a little gentle persuasion to do the right thing.

  11. Daniel Stiles
    December 13, 2013, 1:43 am

    The bangles in the photo are ivory, not rhino horn

    • Sonia Harmon
      December 13, 2013, 8:58 am

      This has been fixed, thank you for pointing it out!

  12. Yo Menashe
    December 12, 2013, 3:47 pm

    Inhumane beings!

  13. Steve
    United States
    December 12, 2013, 3:01 pm

    Remember Lincoln and slavery in the United States? Mandela and Apartheid? Mr. Amman is among many international conservationists putting their lives on the line for what they know is right. Even the United States State Department has a reward out for information which would lead to the arrest of Kingpins in one of the illegal wildlife trafficking cartels. Conservationists and governments are well aware that these cartels are also trafficking humans, drugs, and weapons. The writing is on the wall. With the DNA data and ongoing international efforts tightening the noose, the kingpins have already written their own sentences. It will not be much longer before sentences will be served and our beautiful wildlife will be protected from the threat of the cartels. The quicker this threat can be alleviated the quicker those precious resources can be dedicated to eradicating poverty and supporting sustainable agriculture and livestock, clean drinking water, education, health care, and economic growth so that killing our wildlife doesn’t become our only means of feeding ourselves.

  14. Maggie
    December 12, 2013, 11:59 am

    I had a great opportunity this past April to go to South Africa and the Pumba Game Reserve where there are only a few Rhino on the reserve the ranger said there are no medicinal properties in the Rhino tusks. To kill these lovely creatures for that is disgusting. For what jewellry people get a life really. There are precious stones you can get leave these creatures alone

  15. Maureen
    December 12, 2013, 11:33 am

    I can go to a place in Africa, where I can hand feed a black rhino. That’s much more fun than some stupid bangle!

  16. Ima Ryma
    December 12, 2013, 9:47 am

    Because humans like to show bling,
    Rhinos are killed just for the horn,
    Made into jewelry that does swing
    From ugly mindset skin adorn.
    Demand is up, supply is down.
    But humans will pay any price
    To flaunt their trinkets around town,
    Social statused by merchandise.
    Rhino friendly E.T.s from space
    Did role reverse this brutal game.
    Humans as targets, time and place.
    Bling – that’s what the humans became.

    I’m a show off rhino – look here,
    A human skull around my ear.