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Colorado Droughts, Wildfires, and Floods, Oh My!

Clouds over Boulder after flood
Clouds over Boulder. Photo: Jennifer Pitt

September 16–The view from my window this morning in Boulder, Colorado, is gloomy.  Clouds hover over the mountains, reminding me of the storm we have weathered, and the dismal conditions here on the ground.

Torrential rains swept through Colorado’s Front Range this past week, resulting in calamitous floods that continue to threaten lives, destroy property, and disrupt our communities.  As of this writing, more than one thousand people are “unaccounted for,” meaning they were likely in flooded areas and no one has been able to reach them yet.  We hope they are safe, just lacking phone access; authorities warn us to expect more deaths. (See “Amid Drought, Explaining Colorado Floods.”)

I can see the Chinook helicopters out my window as their pilots brave cloudy skies to search for people stranded in the mountain towns just outside of Boulder.  I wish them luck.

The rain is unprecedented.  Total precipitation in Boulder in the last week ranged 15 – 18 inches, more than doubling the previous record for a single storm event, setting a new record for precipitation in any one month as well as a new all-time annual high for precipitation.  Most years September is sunny and dry, and the snows of March make our “normal” wet month.  If last week’s rain had fallen as snow we might have seen upwards of 12 feet of the white stuff.

Instead, we got torrents rushing down mountain slopes, bringing untold volumes of water, mud, and rocks into creeks and rivers.  Boulder Creek, which runs through downtown, was furious and brown when I walked by yesterday afternoon.

My personal experience of the storm is minor compared to the tragedy that surrounds me, but it’s been disruptive nonetheless:  schools closed, office closed, basement flooded, roof leaking, warnings from local authorities to stay home and off the streets, flood sirens blaring at night.  For many thousands of us, the storm has disrupted routines, and the news of those less fortunate has been sobering.

The Colorado floods occurred in the South Platte River Basin
The Colorado floods occurred in the South Platte River Basin.

Most Coloradans haven’t yet fully absorbed what has happened to a huge swath of our landscape.  Moreover, it’s still happening as I write, with communities downstream bracing for floods as the crest travels.  In Colorado’s northeastern plains the South Platte River is now receiving the combined floodwaters from the Cache la Poudre River to Clear Creek and the dozens of creeks in between that drain the mountains from Fort Collins down to Golden.  Thousands of people will be evacuated from their homes for a yet unknown period.  The storm’s impact is vast and continuing, and only as we dry out over the next few weeks will we begin to know its full toll.

If you find the news about Colorado’s latest disaster confounding, you’re not alone.  The floods of 2013 follow on the heels of a summer of drought and extreme wildfires.  That we are experiencing these extremes in a single year is truly incredible.  Call it a case of climate disaster whiplash.  Until last week, it has been easy to focus on the clear signal forecasting that it has gotten warmer and drier, and that it will continue to do so as the decades pass.  But in the midst of that drying trend, the models also tell us to expect rare wet extremes not seen before. Climate scientists warn of increasing VUCA, an acronym of military origins that stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity.  In other words, hang on for a wild ride.

Until last week, more than 90% of Colorado was in drought, including all of the Front Range and the eastern side of the state.

colorado-drought-map

Just over the mountains the Colorado River Basin (from which the Colorado Front Range imports much of its water through tunnels) has been in drought conditions for more than a decade.  Year after year in Colorado, we have lamented the absence of snowpack in the mountains, and headlines have recently been screaming the news about declining water supply.  Ranchers have culled their herds for lack of animal feed, the ski and whitewater industries have had to make do with shortened seasons, and Front Range communities have had to conserve water to make reservoir supplies last through the hot summer.  Colorado River water users to the south in Arizona, Nevada, California, and Mexico may soon get their first taste of what it’s like to live with reservoirs operating in shortage conditions.

The impact of Colorado’s droughts has not been limited to our water supply.  The absence of precipitation in recent years resulted in tinder-box forest conditions.  Catastrophic wildfires have devastated communities from Fort Collins down to Colorado Springs, claiming lives and all told destroying more than a thousand homes.  The fires of 2013 raged through an unprecedented amount of the landscape, more than 140,000 acres all told.

It was only last summer that the view from my window was this smoky plume from a fire threatening the City of Boulder.  (Thankfully our firefighters, with assistance from federal crews already in the state helping with big fires to the north and south, were able to put this one out quickly.)

Colorado, like other hard-hit places around the globe, is getting a taste of climate extremes.  The challenges are impossible to add up:  catastrophic flash floods, wildfires, the personal tragedies of lives lost and dislocated, hundreds of millions of dollars in infrastructure repair costs, crops lost to drought and crops lost to saturated fields, schools closed, communities isolated, water quality problems, lost revenues to businesses like ski areas, outfitters, river guides and the hospitality industry that depend on Colorado’s healthy rivers and robust snowpack.

Droughts, and wildfires and floods, oh my.  Is this our new normal?

Comments

  1. Gary Beane
    Longmont, CO
    October 9, 2013, 2:17 pm

    How many acres in total were flooded? What must be done to the soil that has been contaminated by e coli bacteria, oil, and frac fluids? I suspect that this land must be written-off forever.

  2. Abbey Dufoe
    Missoula, MT
    September 27, 2013, 11:12 am

    It sure doesn’t help that the bone-dry ground can’t absorb any water from flash floods! I agree with some of the people who commented on this post – even though it is devastating and confusing, the residents of this area will have to learn with the extremities of weather and drought and adapt to it.

  3. Kevin
    September 25, 2013, 10:15 am

    Does anyone know how many people in the US live in 1000 year floodplains?

  4. Nikita Shankar
    NJ
    September 23, 2013, 4:48 pm

    These are extremely unfortunate circumstances that hundreds of citizens have to face, but remember with time and effort the land will redeem itself as long as mankind does not make any alterations. As per the flooding that occurred, tropical moisture from the Mexican Coast had traveled up to the Rockies due to multiple atmospheric events. In addition, the rainfall on the Front Range was lasting for a long duration and was “stuck”. This leads us to believe that there is a connection between climate changes and the flooding that occurred, because if the jet streams has been altered(as a result of the climate changes) then there could be an increase in rainfall that last longer periods of time. This kind of reminds me of the Sandy Storm…

  5. Scott Sinnoc
    Woodstock, IL
    September 18, 2013, 11:41 am

    Does anyone remember the 1976, Big Thompson flood? I have two simple solutions to the potential advent of more flooding caused by climate change, if indeed that transpires,or the inevitable catastrophic flood that will occur no matter what the climate becomes— 1. don’t rebuild ANYTHING except paths and drainage ditches in mapped 1000 year floodplains and 2. stop all forms of subsidized flood insurance. Let the rivers flood as rivers always have and always will flood. Use some of the ditches to distribute the sediment to fertilize the land as they did thousands of years ago. We want to “conquer” nature, tame her, control her floods so we can live and profit from the land. Well, we can still profit from the land by use the flood waters to fertilize for food for life rather than condemn the flood for avoidable death and devastation it now brings. Does anyone remember the 1976 Big Thompson flood?