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Malaria-transmitting mosquito splitting into two species, researchers find

The war against the No. 1 human killer disease, malaria, may be facing complications from evolution.

Researchers funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) have found that the major malaria-transmitting mosquito species, Anopheles gambiae, is evolving into two separate species with different traits, “a development that could both complicate malaria control efforts and potentially require new disease prevention methods,” the agency said today.

Their findings were published in the October 22 issue of the journal Science.

Anopheles gambiae photo 2.jpg

Female Anopheles gambiae mosquito feeding on a human host.

(Credit: CDC/Jim Gathany)

A. gambiae is the most common vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, where rates of the disease are highest,” NIH said in a statement about the research. “The researchers compared the genomes of two emerging species, dubbed M and S.

“Given that M and S appear to be physically indistinguishable and interbreed often, they were unexpectedly different at the DNA level.

“They also were found to behave differently and thrive in different habitats. For example, in the absence of predators, S mosquitoes outcompeted M mosquitoes, but the outcome was reversed when predators were present.”

As these two emerging species of mosquito evolve to develop new traits and behaviors, changes in disease transmission could result, the authors say. “This could complicate malaria control efforts, which currently are based on the mosquitoes’ patterns of behavior and vulnerability to insecticides.”

Future research will further investigate these emerging species, exploring how they compete with one another in various habitats and the molecular basis of their evolution, NIH added. “The results will be used to refine existing malaria interventions and inform the development of new disease prevention strategies.”

Posted from media material provided by the NIH.