Elephants that survived the trauma of the poaching of their relatives may struggle for decades to build new social relationships, new research suggests.
Some may still be living alone twenty years after losing their families.
“An African elephant never forgets – especially when it comes to the loss of its kin,” according to researchers at the University of Washington. Their findings, published online in the journal Molecular Ecology, reveal that the negative effects of poaching persist for decades after the killing has ended.
“Our study shows that it takes a long time – upwards of 20 years – for a family who has lost its kin to rebuild,” said lead researcher Kathleen Gobush, a research ecologist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency and a former doctoral student at the University of Washington Center for Conservation Biology.
African elephants rely heavily on matriarchs to lead groups and keep families together, according to a news statement issued this week by Molecular Ecology. “Before the 1989 ban on ivory trade, nearly 75 percent of all elephants in Tanzania’s Mikumi National Park were killed. Poachers targeted those with the largest tusks – particularly older matriarchs.”
Scientists tracked more than 100 groups of elephants surviving in Mikumi, assessing the lasting effects of poaching on group size, relatedness, and social bonding by comparing information about each group with previous reports of protected populations.
“A lot of these females lost their sisters and mothers, and were left living a solitary existence,” said Sam Wasser, director of the Center for Conservation Biology at the University of Washington. “So the question became, what are the long-term impacts on the genetic relatedness of groups?”
The researchers found that elephants in Mikumi formed unusually small groups, with nearly a third of the females living alone. “Interestingly, some of the elephants chose to forge new bonds with unrelated groups after their own kin had perished,” the news release said.
“When we saw the solitary females, we initially thought that some lucky elephants still had their families, while other elephants had lost it all,” Gobush said. “But we actually saw a flexibility in their behavior. Some elephants were able to find their way and create new bonds with unrelated female elephants, while others did not.”
The researchers say it is unclear how long the effects will persist, especially in light of the recent increase in illegal ivory trade.
“But one thing is certain: Poaching continues to introduce major disruptions in the African elephant’s family tree at a substantial cost,” the researchers said.
“Elephants are very long-lived animals. They are extremely social, and there’s a tremendous amount of group integrity and competitive ability,” Wasser said. “It’s been nearly 20 years since the ivory ban and there are still incredibly persistent impacts of illegal culling on these populations.”
The photos in this entry are of elephants in parts of Africa not related to this research.
Center for Conservation Biology Effects of Poaching on African Elephants (University of Washington)
News story about this research:
Elephants’ Struggle With Poaching Lingers On (Science News)
More NatGeo News Watch entries about elephants:
Elephants Imprisoned by Roads in Congo River Region, Conservationists Say
Elephants’ Legendary Memories May Be Key to Their Survival
Related stories by National Geographic News:
“Never Forgetting” Helps Elephants Survive, Study Says
Dying Elephant Elicits ”Compassion”
Poaching May Erase Elephants From Chad Wildlife Park
Elephant Slaughter Discovered Along African “Highways of Death”
National Geographic Video: Elephants Mourning